Saturday, December 7, 2019

Human Resource Management Set of Techniques and Strategies

Question: 1.Evaluate the effectiveness of the activities that are described in the scenario for Pre-Start Preparation, and present a case for how the process should be improved. What changes do you recommend, what specific steps should be addressed before a new employee arrives? Assess the potential for improved productivity if your changes are implemented? 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of the First Day Activities that are described in the scenario, and defend your suggestions for an improved process. (For example, should some of the standard information be offered in e-learning modules? Should new employees spend more of their first day in their new departments, as opposed to a facility-wide orientation? Should there be a schedule for more than one day of orientation?) Include recommendations for specific activities and timelines, feel free to create checklists as an evaluation guide. Assess the potential for improved productivity in your new approach compared to the scenario? Answer: Introduction: Onboarding can be discussed as a set of techniques and strategies which help a new employee to gather knowledge, manners, and skills to become an efficient member of the organization. An effective process of Onboarding is required to retain in employees in the first place. 255 of the employee turnover occur in the first 45 days (Cable et al., 2013). Moreover, to make the employees a greater production with consuming less time, an effective, useful and well thought-out onboarding process is needed. In the given case, the office has providing a valuable, time-consuming onboarding session to the manager. However, it did not make much change to my knowledge and orientation about the office and its management process. After the session, I was left with not enough information and the process and channel of communication to make the best outcome from my end. Rather it made me confused and skeptical about the facilities I am going to obtain. On the other hand, the training sessions were not much helpful as it was done in a hastily manner. I did not get any formal orientation with other employees and the authorities. The session did not also provide me any knowledge about the organizational culture. However, it can be said that this onboarding session was not much helpful to me (Steinmacher et. al., 2014). Now if I make an assessment about the pre-start onboarding session provided to me, I would say that it made me more confused about my job and the position. No formal introduction to the co-workers was made and my manager did not respond to my call. people tends to stay in the job longer when they feel connected to the social group of their work place and their managers make good contacts and mentor them and complement them. In the case of Google, this hired more than 5000 employees in 2012, made a strong social connection to the new comers, to speed up their performance. They named their social group Nooglers (Ross et al., 2014). Pepsico has also launched an employee onboarding community to familiarize the workers with the company and their job role. To obtain better performance in the pre start onboarding the companies can incorporate the techniques of Gamification (Smith, 2014). It helps a company to ensure better employee retention, higher involvement and better alignment between onboarding and learning initiative. The DBS bank provides the facility of online gaming to introduce the employees the organization values, internal systems, growth data, and multiple set up of the company (Rongo Lioy, 2014). These procedures can be integrated to the onboarding process of my company to obtain better knowledge and relation among the employees and the higher authority. Like LOreal, my company can include round table discussions, individual monitoring, providing needed data and HR support so that the employees can regulate the required channels more efficiently (Cable et al., 2013). On the first day, I have had trouble in my workplace. My desk was not prepared, I did not have the required data and I did not know whom I should contact. Then I was left with no option but going to the receptionist to pledge for help. The first day a company should provide orientation to the new comers and they should spend more time in their new departments. They should be provided with training about the process of performing their job roles. These will help them to know their basic regulation, policies and information about the company and the job role. On the first day, the employees should provide the new employee paperwork, which would be filled with the necessary information about the worker. The standard information should be provided to the employees with an e learning procedure (Fagerholm et al., 2014). Activities Techniques Objectives First week First month Four month Orientation manual FAQs, organization reviews, tips etc. through CD or hard copy To obtain better knowledge and involvement Internet Training Login information, necessary information to handle the portal etc. should be provided To obtain better performence Greeting Mail from the HR to the employees To make the employees feel free and accepted Information regarding benefits From HR to the employees through mail To make the employees feel safe Peer meeting Introduction with co workers and the authority To obtain better work culture Leadership training Meeting to the key people their responsibilities To make the employees know about the hierarchy Feed back To the employee For his positive progress Performance knowledge guide To the employee To focus on the areas for battement Checklist to the employees and the supervisors To ensure that the process is being rightly carried out The following checklist can be consulted in this regard. (Source: Fagerholm et al., 2014) Conclusion: This afore said recommendations would be helpful for my company to guarantee to better role clarity, self efficacy, knowledge of the culture from the employees end. Unlike me, the new employees would be able to perform more quickly and efficiently. This will provide more satisfaction among the employees and the authority would be able to exert the performance in the right time and with greater precision. References: Cable, D. M., Gino, F., Staats, B. R. (2013). Reinventing employee onboarding.MIT Sloan Management Review,54(3), 23. Fagerholm, F., Sanchez Guinea, A., Borenstein, J., Munch, J. (2014). Onboarding in open source projects.Software, IEEE,31(6), 54-61. Rongo, E. J., Lioy, M. V. (2014).U.S. Patent Application No. 14/522,441. Ross, W. E., Huang, K. H., Jones, G. H. (2014). Executive onboarding: ensuring the success of the newly hired department chair.Academic Medicine,89(5), 728-733. Smith, E. N. (2014).Workplace Security Essentials: A Guide for Helping Organizations Create Safe Work Environments. Elsevier. Steinmacher, I., Gerosa, M. A., Redmiles, D. (2014). Attracting, onboarding, and retaining newcomer developers in open source software projects. InWorkshop on Global Software Development in a CSCW Perspective.

Friday, November 29, 2019

5 College Students Share Their Application Process Regrets

The college application process is spread over a full year. Students are on an emotional rollercoaster as they do their college search, dig deep into their inner feelings, interview with college alumni, and wait for months a simple yes or no answer. It may already be over for these Harvard, Stanford, Georgetown, BU and MIT students, but there are still a few things that they regret:LunaXDC Georgetown University ‘20 I would do even more research before and find lots of schools I loved. Im lucky I got into my top choiceGeorgetownbut if I hadnt, it would have been really hard to choose between Berk and Chapel Hill. Find lots of schools you love, because I didnt love any school except GU and it would have been a tragedy not to go. Also, no matter how hard it getsand it gets harddo your best on everything. I let some essays fall by the wayside, and I shouldnt have. GW1998 Stanford University’ 20 Dont stress. I could write an entire essay on the harms of putting too much pressure on yourself during the college application process. I understand the stress of wanting to get into a top-tier school, but trust me, that isnt a healthy mindset! You dont HAVE to get into a top tier schoolI personally went into the process not expecting anything. There are so many amazing schools, and your success isnt dependent on what school you go to. You havent wasted your time on ECs or academics if you get rejected from top schools. The evidence of your effort and passion isnt in the form of an acceptance letterits in your character, your personality, your knowledge and way of thinking.Use EA/ED to your advantage. Everyone knows that you use ED to demonstrate interest in your first choice. I didnt have a first choice, so ED wasnt an option for me. Most people overlook EA as a way to maximize your advantage. Firstly, EA does boost your application (in my opinion, e.g. for schools like UChicago) b ecause it does show interest. More importantly, I think you can use EA as a way to gauge the competitiveness of your application and adjust your RD applications to suit this. For example, after being accepted to Notre Dame and UChicago EA, I decided not to apply to any safety/match schools and focus on reach schools. This meant I could apply to more reach schools (my school has a limit of 6 applications) and maximize my chances for those schools! Clynk2020 MassachusettsInstitute of Technology ‘20 If Im being honest, Its clear that my stats arent perfect; theyre good, but I have no doubt there were plenty of other applicants who were much more academically qualified than I am. Theres no way to be certain, but I would say my success during the application season was a combination of really strong essays, my art supplements, great recommendation letters, and a little but of luck. My advice to anyone who is reading this is to find something that makes you stand out—as long as youre not it doing it just to impress colleges. There are too many kids that have perfect grades and perfect test scores, so you need to be different. If I had the chance to start over, the only thing I would do differently would be to start my main/common app essay earlier! Starting early will save you some major stress when youre writing the tons of other supplements that you might leave until the last minute like I did.EugbostonHarvard University ‘20Standardized testing: I would plan on havin g all standardized testing completed by June. Essays are much more important, and risking to write low quality essays because you have to study for the SAT is not a risk worth taking.Essay and supplements: Have someone read your essays. Another perspective may be really useful, especially in highlighting weak passages and/or sentences that are unclear.Interviews: I would definitely prepare more for my first interview, practising answers to possible questions. Nataliem83 Boston University ‘19 I overwhelmed myself my senior year and took 5 AP classes. Being a straight A student my entire high school career, I received my first Bs in some of those classes and I believe that my mid-year report hurt my application. I also focused too much on testing and took a variety of SAT IIs instead of really studying for two and acing them. Long story short, I wasted a lot of time on standardized testing. Choosing where to go to college is an incredibly important decision. Make an informed choice by talking to current students on ourmentorship platform. Access 60,000+ successfulcollege application filesuploaded by college students (they get paid when you view them). is a community of students helping students. Our goal is to bring much-needed transparency to higher education.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Siddartha

The Significance of the River in Siddhartha In the book Siddhartha by Hermann Hesse the significance of the river is displayed throughout the experiences that Siddhartha has next to the river and the things that by listening to the sound he comes to understand. Siddhartha is learning something from the moment he rides the ferry to the time when Govinda lays on the ground with tears flowing uncontrollably. Siddhartha admits to having no money to pay for the voyage, but the Ferryman says that friendship is payment enough, and takes him into town. After leaving town, Siddhartha returns to the river where had met the Ferryman earlier. Intrigued by the river's beauty and silent wisdom, Siddhartha decides to stay by the river. Siddhartha soon meets the Ferryman Vasuveda, the same man who took him across the river earlier. Siddhartha offers to be Vasuveda's apprentice, an offer that the Ferryman graciously accepts. The two grow together as Siddhartha begins to learn the river's wisdom, and soon Siddhartha begins to emulate Vasuveda's demeanor, expressing a contented peace in the routine of daily life. Years pass. One day, the two Ferrymen hear that the Buddha is dying. Kamala, on hearing the news as well, travels with her son to be near Goatama. As she passes near the river, she is bitten by a snake and dies, but not before Vasuveda takes her to Siddhartha. After Kamala dies, Siddhartha keeps his son with him by the river. The boy, though, refuses to accept Siddhartha as his father and consequently does nothing he is told. Many months pass, but the boy remains intransigent. Eventually the boy runs away. Vasuveda tells Siddhartha to let him go, but Siddhartha follows him. Upon reaching the town, Siddhartha recalls his own experiences there and admits to himself what he knew all along, that he could not help the boy. Siddhartha feels a great sorrow at this loss, and the happiness he had known as a Ferryman leaves him. Vasuveda soon... Free Essays on Siddartha Free Essays on Siddartha The Significance of the River in Siddhartha In the book Siddhartha by Hermann Hesse the significance of the river is displayed throughout the experiences that Siddhartha has next to the river and the things that by listening to the sound he comes to understand. Siddhartha is learning something from the moment he rides the ferry to the time when Govinda lays on the ground with tears flowing uncontrollably. Siddhartha admits to having no money to pay for the voyage, but the Ferryman says that friendship is payment enough, and takes him into town. After leaving town, Siddhartha returns to the river where had met the Ferryman earlier. Intrigued by the river's beauty and silent wisdom, Siddhartha decides to stay by the river. Siddhartha soon meets the Ferryman Vasuveda, the same man who took him across the river earlier. Siddhartha offers to be Vasuveda's apprentice, an offer that the Ferryman graciously accepts. The two grow together as Siddhartha begins to learn the river's wisdom, and soon Siddhartha begins to emulate Vasuveda's demeanor, expressing a contented peace in the routine of daily life. Years pass. One day, the two Ferrymen hear that the Buddha is dying. Kamala, on hearing the news as well, travels with her son to be near Goatama. As she passes near the river, she is bitten by a snake and dies, but not before Vasuveda takes her to Siddhartha. After Kamala dies, Siddhartha keeps his son with him by the river. The boy, though, refuses to accept Siddhartha as his father and consequently does nothing he is told. Many months pass, but the boy remains intransigent. Eventually the boy runs away. Vasuveda tells Siddhartha to let him go, but Siddhartha follows him. Upon reaching the town, Siddhartha recalls his own experiences there and admits to himself what he knew all along, that he could not help the boy. Siddhartha feels a great sorrow at this loss, and the happiness he had known as a Ferryman leaves him. Vasuveda soon...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Benefits of Community involvement in Construction Literature review

Benefits of Community involvement in Construction - Literature review Example Findings from past studies on community participation have sometimes been applied in a wide range of service sections and types of settlement. It is, therefore, important obtain clarity in such findings. The following sections will look into an overview of community involvement and the findings from previous studies in relation to the effects of community involvement on construction projects and similar developments. Community Participation: An Overview A community’s conceptualization differs between projects, sectors, and regions (Memon, 2004). Typically, a community can be classified in terms of their administrative, social, and resource attributes. For example, legal communities refer to those that have been recognized by the local government, distinguishing a chain of command and arranging laws and codes in terms of political structures. The community members themselves are referred to as the social communities that signify the differentiation between the population based on social, cultural, and economic norms, such as farmers, traders, or local administrators. Finally, geographical communities can be defined by their planning terms as well as natural features and resources, recognizing communal interests (Kumar, 2005). Types of participation with which community members are actively involved in a particular activity can be classified into a number of forms. Passive participation refers to the type of involvement where in individuals who live within the project area participate by being told of future plans or current developments; other than this, they will not have any other contribution. Participation for material incentive is a type of involvement wherein individuals participate because they are paid by food or cash in exchange for their labor in a pre-determined project (Joshi and Moore, 2004). These individuals can also participate by offering a resource, including money or labor, to the set project, thus participation by resource contribution . Next, participation with consultation involves community members being consulted with their ideas and options regarding the decisions that have to be made for the project. Consequently, their views may either be accepted or rejected. People who are involved in interactive participation join external professionals to analyze the given situation; they also help develop action plans and decide for common projects. Finally, spontaneous mobilization enables community members to take their own initiatives that are not influenced by external professionals in order to contribute to the situation. As a result, self-help projects and requests for assistance to other relevant institutions may be carried out. Much of the empirical evidence with regards to the outcomes of projects in which community members are involved in have been based on the research on rural water projects (Prokopy, 2005) as well as from other public service sectors with which participation has been conceptualized as a ty pe of co-production. With this, citizens contribute their input to services which are typically and exclusively generated by public agencies. Support for community involvement has been evident in different sectors and one perceived reason for such is that social change, including the development of new habits and skills, or realizations of the service’

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Work Plan for a Formal Business Report Assignment

Work Plan for a Formal Business Report - Assignment Example The report will compare the types of wiki used by the two companies in order to determine a suitable type of wiki for Home Bank. The report will also include subtopics such as: benefits and costs, risks, training needs, and recommendation. Benefit and Costs will be an important part of the report because it will inform the supervisor about the feasibility of the wiki, so that it can be rejected if it has more costs than benefits and accepted if it has more benefits than costs (Brown, 2006). This report will not include wider elements of a wiki that do not apply to the bank. The business investigation report will be conducted in a sequence of steps. This will involve the use of mainly secondary sources of data. First, the investigating team will collect data from the relevant secondary sources and record them for analysis. The team will then analyse the data objectively. The analysed data will then be discussed and appropriate recommendations are provided based on the

Monday, November 18, 2019

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Essay

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Essay Example As the intake of cannabis has become very much common, one might wonder the rate at which people are hospitalized for it. It has been found out that the trends in hospital separations related to drug-induced psychosis in Australia for cannabis have reduced. The high intake of cannabis can lead to intoxication as a result of which there are accidents. Hospitalization rates have increased due to the accidents that have occurred due to the intake of the drug. An astonishing case of hospitalization has been in the case where a toddler was admitted because he had accidentally consumed the cannabis of his parents. Moreover, hospitalizations were more frequent within the group of indigenous people of Australia.Cannabis when taken on a regular basis and in huge amount in can lead to several problems and lead to different diseases including mental. Children who are addicted to it find themselves performing poorly in schools. In fact, a positive correlation is seen between the use of cannabis and its detrimental effect on education. Cannabis increases the poor performance of the students and ultimately they leave school. Thus it creates a population of uneducated people with severe addiction to cannabis (Lynskey & Hall, 2000). There is a lot of health effects that are associated with the consumption of cannabis. Consumption of cannabis leads to intoxication which affects behavioral skills. As a result, there has been an increase in the number of accidents of those who intake cannabis. Further, continuous consumption of cannabis creates dependence on it which is very hard to leave. Cannabis smoking is â€Å"

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Comparison of the Atlantic Slave Trade

Comparison of the Atlantic Slave Trade Although slavery was not a new institution during the 1600 1800s however, there were great contrasts in the way slaves were treated in the Atlantic World. Slaves throughout this era were treated in various ways and from having some legal rights to having none, and from having freedom to virtually no chance of freedom. Although it did take over 150 years, slavery finally came to an end in most of the Atlantic regions. England/America and Slavery In tracing back slavery in Britain and then the Americas one can go back to ancient Rome. However unlike the 1500s 1800s instead of being slave holders, the British themselves were slaves to the Romans whom they had captured and made prisoners of war and then shipped of for sale in the Roman markets. After the fall of the Roman Empire, which historians disagree on the dates which can be between 476 A.D. to 1453 A.D. or that Rome never fell, but rather adapted (Gill, 2010). Unlike slavery in England or the English colonies there were many stations of slaves in Ancient Rome which included: agaso- which was a groom, atriensis, who were stewards, auri custos- were jewelery attendants, bubulcus- which were ploughman, calator who were footmen, cantrix singers, cellarius storekeepers. Slaves were also classified as cooks, messenger, game fatterners, chain gang, market gardeners, doorkeepers, reapers messengers, nurses, obstetricians, shepherds, chaperons, attendants, pages, planters, ev en hairdresser, masseurs, and cloths folders. Also under Roman law slaves could gain their freedom in various ways which included: Per censum, when a slave with his masters permission places his name in the censors roll. Per vindictam, when a master took his slave to the praetor or consul or pro-praetor or pro-consul and declared I desire that this man be free, according to the custom of the Romans(Roman Slaves, 2008), if then the praetor approved he would then put a rod on the head of the slave and pronounce I say that this man is free, after the manner of the Romans (Roman Slaves, 2008). At this point the master or a lector (bodyguard) would turn him around in circle and give him a blow on the check which signified that leave was granted to him to go wherever he wanted. A slave could gain his freedom by Per testamentum which was when a master gave his slaves freedom at his own will. Finally Slaves that fought in the arenas could gain their freedom by fighting well. Although the English justified slavery during the 1500s 1800s on the reasoning that the Ancient Romans used slavery, the institutes were radically different. The beginning of slavery in England and the English Colonies began with indentured servants who would sign on to leave England and start a new life but to pay their fair they sold themselves to work for a certain time span, usually three to five years. Many of this were criminals, prostitutes, or owed debt and were willing to leave to start a new life rather than going to prison or even put to death with the majority being young men in their teens to early twenties. After their committed time was up they then were free to start their own lives. Due to the growth in the colonies there began to be a lack of indentured servants so there had to be another way to get the labor needed for the plantations. There were various schemes that brought slaves to the New World which included kidnapping and being European did not protect you f rom being kidnapped and sent into servitude. Many would find themselves on the way to Virginia after having a beer with a friend in a European city (Hines, 1996). In contrast, most Roman slaves were prisoners of war and were freed on the whelms of their masters. In the beginning slavery in America was neither slavery nor limited to Africans, but was indentured servitude where the servants including Africans were released after serving their time. Africans then would join the community where they were normally farmers and even voters as being equal members of the community. Under indentured servitude if children were born they were considered free which was in contrast to slavery. Under indentured servitude there was no racism. This was to change when under the case of re Negro John Punch in 1640 that made a racial distinction among indentured servants and made blacks indentured servants for a lifetime (Slavery and Indentured Servants). In 1705 the Virginia Slave Code was established that set laws concerning the treatment and legal status of slaves in the English colonies. Under the code a childs status was determined by the status of his mother instead of the father which had been normal in England, if the mother was a free woman then the ch ild was free, but if the woman was a slave the child was considered to be a slave. Marriages between blacks and whites (the Virginia Code also prohibited marriage between other groups such as Amerindians, Irish, Turks, etc.) were illegal. Under the Virginia code the conversion of slaves to a certain religion was not a top priority, and many masters did not encourage the conversion of their slaves to Christianity since they had such a low opinion of the slaves character that they felt conversion was worthless as well as impractical (Hast, 1969. p. 221). Slaves therefore were made to work on Sundays and other holy days. Under the Virginia Code a person that was a Christian or from a Christian nation was not to be sold, however if a slave converted to Christianity they were not allowed to be freed. Also under the code slaves were not to be educated in either religion or a trade since the attitude of the master was the slaves (who were black) were inferior and not capable of learning. S laves had no rights, a slave was not allowed to hit a Christian, however if a slave was struck and was killed by a white master, the master was not held accountable for murder. Slaves were limited on their contact with slaves from other plantations in order to cut down the chances of rebellion. In the area of family, marriages between slaves were not allowed. The justification of slavery was surprisingly not over race but actually religion due to the notion that black Africans were heathens and would undercut the religion of the Europeans. Thus this ideology was the backbone for justifying lifetime slavery for Africans. Ironically Virginia then enacted laws that allowed Black Christians to serve as slaves and here we see the beginning of a history that dominates racial attitudes to this day. One may ask why the change in the social make up from indentured servitude to slavery and there are several answers to that question. One is that they were in a New World and plantation owners were adapting to problems as well as opportunities. One of the problems with indentured servitude was indentured servants tended to run away and if they were either Native American or European they were able to blend in easily with the rest of the population. On the other hand the free African-American population was very small so if an African escaped he/she was more noticeable, another problem was under the contract of indentured servitude any European that served out their contract was to be given a weapon and plot of land. This gave an increase of armed, lower-class whites that lived in the frontier and who had not sympathy for the plantation owners who had enslaved and oppressed them for years. In 1676 under the leadership of Nathaniel Bacon these people banned together and burned Jamestow n. As a result the departe elite plantation owners needed a way to ease this situation and that lead to the paradox of racial slavery. The Virginia plantation owners/aristocrats the focused on the difference of skin colr and were able to present the perception of a colonial society that placed all Caucasians into a category of a master race. Economically it was also easier to keep Africans in servitude and this factor caused a flood of Africans to the Americas over the next 150 years. With the approach of the American Revolution there was a mixed blessing by both free African-Americans as well as slaves. The principles of the revolution had implied the end of slavery but the revolutionaries was never able to deliver that promise. It had been the desire of Thomas Jefferson to end slavery with the formation of the new nation, yet it was ironic that he never freed his slaves. Jefferson was not the only person of his day that wanted to see salves free but there were men like Samuel Sewall who advocated freedom for African-Americans and even had pamphlets published and distributed that countered the arguments that the men of his time used to promote slavery. Sewall stated in his pamphlet The Selling of Joseph: A Memorial Tis pity there should be more Caution used in buying a Horse, or a little lifeless dust; than there is in purchasing Men and Women: Whenas they are the Offspring of GOD, and their Liberty is, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (Sewall, 1700). Here he basically stated tha t men took more time and caution in buying horses and gold than they did in buying people. Despite its promise of freedom and rights to all men, the revolution did not grant African-Americans that freedom. This double standard was not lost on African-Americans who had fought on both sides of the war believing one side or the other would have been more likely to grant slaves the freedom they desired. The American Revolution started with an African-American named Crispus Attucks, who happened to also be the first martyr. On Sunday March 5, 1770, which is the date given as the start of the Revolution, was a day full of problems in the city of Boston. The relationship between the colonist and British Soldiers and become strained and filled with frequent violence. The days before this Sunday there had been numerous tavern brawls and street fights between the British soldiers and the colonist. In one incident three British soldiers were beaten and ran out of town but returned with reinforcements. On this day a group of soldiers had just emerged from their barracks and were confronted by a gang of boys that include African-Americans, Irish, and others. After trading insults the two groups began to fight. Lead by Crispus, the Americans were able to drive the soldiers back to their barracks. After much confusion and angry by the citizens of Boston a British sentry ended up being attacked and then called for backup. A British soldier happened to be hit in the head with a stick and as a result his musket fired and killed Crispus. Several more shots ended up being fired and after the smoke cleared five people had been shot to death. This incident, which became known as the Boston Massacre, was the turning point in the relationship between America and the British with everyone realizing that the bonds between England and America had been irreparably severed. It is a great irony of history that the first battle of the revolution was not planned and the first hero of the war was an African- American who had been a former slave and whose courage and passion led the angry crowd to stand up against the British and whose death was the first in a long struggle for freedom and independence. However it would be another seven years before the first state, Vermont, would abolish slavery and then another 88 years before slavery was abolished in the United States. In 1791 as the United states was beginning as the first republic in the Western hemispheres, on the French Island of Haiti events began to unfold for another American revolution. Unlike the revolution in the British Colonies, the revolution in Haiti was driven by slaves who outnumbered their French plantation owners. August 22nd of 1791 was the day that the Haitian was for independence began under the leadership of Dutty Boukman when over one hundred thousand slaves began their revolt against the much hated French. These men and women had been slaves all their lives and they not only wanted freedom, but revenge for the harsh treatments they had endured under the French. Over the next three weeks the Haitian slaves executed any Frenchman they found had burned every plantation in the fertile regions of Haiti. Other leaders for Haitis fight for independence were Franà §ois Dominique Toussaint LOuverture, and Jeam-Jacques Dessalines. It would not be until November 28, 1803 that Haiti wo uld become the second republic in the Western hemisphere. Africa and Slavery Although the majority of slaves that came to America were from Africa, there was a vast contrast in how slaves were treated on both continents. Slavery had been a part of African cultures from the Sahara to the Kalahari long before colonialism thus they were not much different from other parts of the world. Like everywhere else in the world, slaves in Africa were considered legal property of their owners. However, slavery in Africa differed in practice from its European counterpart in practice. African slaves would normally be integrated into the home of the owner and it was not unusual for former slaves to rise to positions of trust within the family of his former owner or even to authoritative positions within their society. Another difference between African slavery and that of European slavery was the treatment of slaves. Under African masters slaves were not subjected to continual inhuman and brutal treatment as was the case under European ownership of slaves. Portugal was the first European nation to make a sustained contact with sub-Saharan Africa, and the slaves they obtained were originally used in domestic capacities and with the limited demand at the time slaves were just a part of trade that involved other commodities, however this would change with the discovery of the Americas and the colonization that would soon follow. By the end of the 16th century over 13,000 slaves were imported to the Americas per year and as more of the Americas and Caribbean Islands were conquered and the demand for slaves increased it is believed that between 1800 and 1865 around four million slaves were imported to the Americas (The African Slave Trade Slaves in Africa, 2006). With the growing realization of the negative impact that the slave trade was having on their population there began to be a growing opposition to the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. The kings of Congo and Benin, which is now a part of Nigeria, were among the first rulers that came to oppose the slave trade. Around 1865 these factors are what lead to the end of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. It is thought that 15-50 million Africans were taken as slaves from Africa to the slave plantations in the Americas, with half dying on the journey (The African Slave Trade Slaves in Africa, 2006). Although this paper focused on just the two continents of America and Africa, the slave trade had left a legacy on the continents of Asia and Europe as well. The Trans-Atlantic slave trade was also a pointer to the way men can be inhuman to fellow men. Conclusion Where and when slaves served in servitude determined their way of life, from having rights and a chance of freedom to virtually having no rights or chance of freedom. Although slavery was not a new idea during this time period, the way slaves were treated did vary, not only by continent and differing civilizations, but by time as well.